哈利路亞(1):字義 Hallelujah(1): Meaning

Hallelujah在讀大學的時候,我讀了一本關於『詩篇』和讚美的書。它不是一本解經參考書,而是關於詩篇和敬拜的書。日子已經過了很久,我已經忘記書名和作者的名字,只記得是一本不錯的書。

也因為這本書提及,所以我很早就知道『哈利路亞』這個詞1的完整的意思。之後有時候我發現,雖然大部份基督徒都很熟悉,也用過『哈利路亞』這個詞,但是卻不一定知道這個詞按字義到底是什麼意思。

部分原因可能是因為中文和合本聖經對這個詞採用的是意譯,而不是音譯,所以在中文的舊約聖經裡,並沒有用『哈利路亞』這個詞,只在詩篇104:35的最後一句話,『你們要讚美耶和華』之後,做了個解釋:『原文作哈利路亞,下同』。在新約聖經裡,唯一用到『哈利路亞』的地方是啟示錄19:1-6。因為新約聖經用的是希臘文,所以那裡希臘文用的是希伯來文『哈利路亞』的音譯。

按字面直譯的話,這個詞的意思是『你們要讚美耶和華。』

為了是大家更清楚的意識的這個詞的字義,我在這裡提兩件事:

一.『哈利路亞』是由兩個字組成的。

第一個字是 HLL,2 HLL 的意思是讚美。第二個字是 yah,而yah是YHWH (耶和華)的簡寫。

為了使大家清楚看到這是兩個字的組成,我提一些在聖經裡類似組成的例子。以下三個詞都出現在詩篇150:1。3

halelu-ya 你們要讚美 耶和華
halelu-el 你們要讚美 4
halelu-hu 你們要讚美

二.『哈利路』是祈使語氣,第二人稱複數。

第二人稱複數是你們,不是你,不是我,不是他,也不是我們或他們。第二人稱複數可以從 halelu 尾端的 u 看得出來。祈使語氣在這裡的用法是呼籲的意思;所以『哈利路亞』不只是說『讚美主』,而是對著一群人(至少超過一個人)說,你們要讚美耶和華。

關於希伯來文動詞可以加個代名詞字尾或代名詞字首,我們也可以從下列的例子清楚的看到。以下三個詞都出現在詩篇146:1-25

halelu 你們要讚美[耶和華](詩146:1)
haleli [我的心哪,] 要讚美 [耶和華](詩146:16
ahallel 要讚美 [他的話](詩146:2)

雖然我們可以用 halelu-yah, haleli-yah, ahallel-yah 來表達你們要讚美耶和華,你要讚美耶和華,我要讚美耶和華,但在聖經裡只有用到第一個。

這篇文所要提醒的,主要是『哈利路亞』是個呼籲,呼籲對象是第二人稱複數(你們)。當然,所呼籲讚美的對象是耶和華。所以希望當我們說『哈利路亞』的時候,更清楚的意識到這個詞的意思是『你們要讚美耶和華』。這樣就自然的會應用得合適了。

 

註:雖然按字義來說,這篇文所寫的沒有什麼新東西,不過是希伯來文的字義而已,但是如果沒有意識到字義的話,有些時候我們的用法也會有點彆扭或奇怪。我在網絡上認識了一位在新加坡的黃國強牧師。他常提到這事。黃牧師對信徒的提醒,也間接的促使我寫了這篇短文,所以在此我也向黃牧師致謝。

[最近在準備一個新的題目,但是還沒開始那個題目之前,我會寫一些像這樣短文。]

  1. 在希伯來文是兩個字
  2. 也可以說是 HALAL,但是嚴格來說,HLL 的Piel form 才是讚美的意思。對不懂希伯來文的讀者來說,這個細節不重要。
  3. הַ֥לְלוּ יָ֙הּ׀ הַֽלְלוּ־אֵ֥ל בְּקָדְשׁ֑וֹ הַֽ֜לְל֗וּהוּ בִּרְקִ֥יעַ עֻזּֽוֹ׃
  4. 中文聖經的『在神的聖所讚美他』,原文是『你們要讚美神(halelu-el),在他的聖所』。
  5. הַֽלְלוּ־יָ֡הּ הַלְלִ֥י נַ֜פְשִׁ֗י אֶת־יְהוָֽה׃   אֲהַלְלָ֣ה יְהוָ֣ה בְּחַיָּ֑י  אֲזַמְּרָ֖ה לֵֽאלֹהַ֣י בְּעוֹדִֽי׃
  6. 這裡不是用 haleli-yah, 而是 haleli et-YHWH,因為作者把耶和華整個字寫出來,而不是用簡寫

Comments

哈利路亞(1):字義 Hallelujah(1): Meaning — 6 Comments

  1. Thank you Makarios for your work and teachings. Your articles/videos have been very helpful for me studying the Bible and understanding the appropriate applications of its teachings! And they also remind me to think and not to be sloppy in reading God’s words! I have a question about the translation of Ps 104:35 as my friend and I discussed the usage of “praise the Lord” (singular and plural)seen in the Chinese and English translations there. Your illustration and explanation of the meaning of “Halleluyah” is clear so this probably is more a question of Hebrew language/translation.

    I don’t know Hebrew or Greek so I went to check the interlinear Bible of that verse to see whether I could found the two forms of the phrase you mentioned in your article but I could only see the one time “hallu-Yahweh” in the transliteration and not two times and two forms as in the NIV English translation and Chinese translation. Therefore, my question is why they put two times (one call to the soul and one call for all to) “praise the Lord” there with only one “hallu-Yahweh”?

    • Hi Susan, thank you for your feedback and question! Glad to know that the articles/videos have been helpful to you, and I thank God for that.

      About Psalm 104:35, the reason we have “praise the Lord” two times but only one “hallelu-jah” is because the first one actually uses a different word. It is the word “bless” but since in today’s English the phrase “bless the Lord” is almost never used, the translator chose to translate it also as praise. The Chinese translation does show a difference.

      So basically we have “baraki napsi et-YHWH, halelu-yah.”

      baraki: you should bless (note the ending of ‘i’ also to indicate 2nd person singular)
      napsi: my soul
      et-YHWH: et points to the object, which is YHWH (Yahweh or the LORD)

      halelu-yah: You (plural) should praise Yah(weh).

      Here is the verse in Hebrew (reading from right to left of course):
      בָּרֲכִ֣י נַ֭פְשִׁי אֶת־יְהוָ֗ה הַֽלְלוּ־יָֽהּ׃

      • Thank you so much Makarios老師 for the reply and clarification! Your work and teachings also inspire me to desire to learn the original languages.

        • Original languages is certainly a useful thing, but it takes a lot of time including time spent after the classes in order to have a good/reasonably correct feel of the language. As in many things in life including theology, one has to pick one or two areas of concentration and be used by God. God bless!

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